Scanning Microscope Image of C. difficile
Prolonged especially broad spectrum antibiotic use kills the natural beneficial gut microbes called gut flora. That helps the pathologic bacteria like clostridium to colonize. That may cause diarrhea, called pseudo membranous enterocolitis, which is resistant to common antibiotics used in infective diarrheas.
At present, it is treated by;
· Stopping the antibiotics.
· Adding gut friendly bacteria like lactobacilli.
· Adding Metronidazole.
· Adding Vancomycin.
· Supportive treatment in form of fluid management.
With these treatments the relapse is seen many a times.
Now, a new drug, Fidaxomicin has been approved by FDA to treat this diarrhea; which said to have superior results than the existing treatment. The relapse rate is said to be lower.