Sunday, October 9, 2011

Can A Pill A Day Halt or Improve Diabetes-Diabetic's Hope

Researchers are working to develop a pill that can treat or even prevent type 2 diabetes. They believe that people be taking the compound like a daily vitamin to stop the condition from developing. The compound is nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which plays a vital role in the way cells use energy.
 A simplified outline of redox metabolism, show...Image via Wikipedia
More than 2.5 million Britons suffer from Type 2 diabetes and perhaps the world population going to face a diabetic epidemic. A study on diabetic mice found that supplementation of NMN that is naturally produced in body, successfully restored their normal blood sugar metabolism. At the same time the jabs lowered raised levels of cholesterol and triglyceride level in blood.
The classic features of diabetes can be;
  • Passing urine more often than usual (Polyuria), especially at night (Nocturia).
  • Increased thirst (Polydypsia).
  • Increased hunger (Polyphagia)
  • Extreme tiredness.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Genital itching or regular episodes of thrush; Increased fungal infection.
  • Skin and soft tissue infection.
  • Slow healing of cuts and wounds.
  • Blurred vision.
For many, the first signs of diabetes are symptoms caused by complications;
  • Impotence and erectile dysfunction.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Poor circulation to the legs and feet.
  • Kidney diseases
  • Gum disease.
In a study the U.S. scientists triggered the condition in young, healthy mice by feeding them a high-fat diet. All had reduced levels of a molecule called Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) that takes part in energy production from food.
In both mice and humans, NAD is derived from NMN made by cells via a chain of biological reactions from niacin (Vitamin B3). One of NAD's effects is activation of SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a protein that has been shown to promote healthy metabolism throughout the body.
Sirtuin 1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase protein that is encoded by the SIRT1 gene in humans. SIRT1 stands for sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1 referring to the fact that its sirtuin homolog (biological equivalent across species) in yeast (S. cerevisiae) is Sir2. SIRT1 is an enzyme that deacetylates proteins that contribute to cellular regulation (reaction to stressors, longevity).
So, of metabolism and energy production.
After the treatment with NMN, the animals showed dramatically improved responses to glucose. In the case of female mice, it was seen that their ability to move glucose from the blood to organs and tissues had returned to normal. Male mice also showed an improvement, but were not completely normalised. The gender difference might be explained by hormonal effects, the scientists believe.
It was also seen that the NMN administered, has completely reversed and normalised the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential cofactor involved in fundamental processes in cell metabolism. NAD takes part in the citric acid cycle in metabolic pathway involved in the chemical conversion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water to generate a form of usable energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMN AT) plays a key role in NAD+ biosynthesis, catalysing the condensation of nicotinamide mononucleotide and ATP, and yielding NAD+ and pyrophosphate.
Let us hope for a simple solution to a complicated disease like Diabetes.
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