The most common site for ectopic pregnancy is fallopian tube. There are two fallopian tubes those open to the uterus in each side, so one is left and the other is right. These are narrow tubes meant for carrying ovum to the uterus. If conditions match the ovum gets fertilized in it and transported to the uterine cavity wherein the product of conception grows. Sometimes that does not happen and the product of conception gets implanted inside it.
The implanted one cannot grow fully and rapture of the tube becomes inevitable as it grows in size. This usually occurs within third trimester. Before rapture, ectopic pregnancy causes pain in the abdomen with amenorrhea; and with rapture, becomes life threatening due to bleeding inside the abdominal cavity, if untreated. One in ten admitted case of ectopic pregnancy dies in developing countries; it is said.
Sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy can be done in a later stage usually after third week of pregnancy; suspected ectopic pregnancy can be supported by pregnancy test from urine. But, unsuspected cases land in rapture of tube necessitating removal of the part. The woman stands with jeopardy of subsequent conception to some extent.
Researchers have found out that serum placental growth factor (PlGF) level is reduced in cases of tubal ectopic pregnancies when compared to intrauterine pregnancies. It has a good level of accuracy in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy. Utilizing this test so many lives and reproductive lives can be saved by early surgery by taking out the early fetus.
Large-scale studies are now required to determine its clinical utility.