|English: Magnified 20,000X, this colorized scanning electron micrograph (SEM) depicts a grouping of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria. See PHIL 617 for a black and white view of this image. These S. aureus bacteria are methicillin-resistant, and are from one of the first isolates in the U.S. that showed increased resistance to vancomycin as well. Note the increase in cell wall material seen as clumps on the organisms’ surface. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)|
According to WHO, in 2012, there were about 450 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has been identified in 92 countries.MDR-TB requires treatment courses that are much longer and less effective than those for non-resistant TB. Resistance to earlier generation antimalarial drugs is widespread in most malaria-endemic countries. Further spread, or emergence in other regions, of artemisinin-resistant strains of malaria could jeopardize important recent gains in control of the disease.
Dalvance is the first drug designated as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) to receive FDA approval. Under the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) title of the FDA Safety and Innovation Act, Dalvance was granted QIDP designation because it is an antibacterial or antifungal human drug intended to treat serious or life-threatening infections.
Dalvance is marketed by Chicago-based Durata Therapeutics. However, The situation is not very much encouraging and no quick solution seems to be within reach, except a much needed cohesive effort from all the stake-holders; from which the medical community can play a major and important role.
- not completing a course of antibiotics as prescribed
- skipping doses of antibiotics
- not taking antibiotics at regular intervals
- saving some for later
- unnecessary prescription of antibiotics
- unsuitable use of broad-spectrum antibiotics
- wrong selection of antibiotics and inappropriate duration or dose of antibiotics
SUPERBUGS: THE GUIDE TO BUGS RENDERING ANTIBIOTICS OBSOLETE: READ MORE
People infected by resistant superbugs are also likely to stay longer in hospital and may need intensive care, pushing up costs.
C. difficile - This bacteria produces spores that are resistant to high temperatures and are very difficult to eliminate. It is spread through contaminated food and objects and can cause blood poisoning and tears in the large intestine.
E. coli - this now accounts for one in three cases of bacterial infections in the blood in the UK and a new strain is resistant to most antibiotics. It is highly contagious and could cause more than 3,000 deaths a year.
Acinetobacter Baumannii - a common bacteria which is resistant to most antibiotics and which can easily infect patients in a hospital. It can cause meningitis and is fatal in about 80 per cent of patients.
CRKP (carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae) - this is a bacterium that is associated with extremely difficult to treat blood infections and meningitis. It is resistant to nearly all antibiotics and is fatal in 50 per cent of cases.
Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is estimated to kill 150,000 people globally each year.
NDM-1 - a bacteria detected in India of which some strains are resistant to all antibiotics.